Study of Fundamental Relationships of Equity Funds and Debt Funds

Equity Funds

Equity funds are considered to be the more risky funds as compared to other fund types, but they also provide higher returns than other funds. It is advisable that an investor looking to invest in an equity fund should invest for long term i.e. for 3 years or more. There are different types of equity funds each falling into different risk bracket. In the order of decreasing risk level, there are following types of equity funds:

Aggressive Growth Funds: In Aggressive Growth Funds, fund manager aspire for maximum capital appreciation and invest in less researched shares of speculative nature. Because of these speculative investments Aggressive Growth Funds become more volatile and thus, are prone to higher risk than other equity funds.
Growth Funds – Growth Funds also invest for capital appreciation (with time horizon of 3 to 5 years) but they are different from Aggressive Growth Funds in the sense that they invest in companies that are expected to outperform the market in the future. Without entirely adopting speculative strategies, Growth Funds invest in those companies that are expected to post above average earnings in the future.
Speciality Funds: Speciality funds have stated criteria for investment and their portfolio comprises of only those companies that meet their criteria. Criteria for some speciality funds could be to invest/not to invest in particular regions/companies. Speciality funds are concentrated and thus, are comparatively riskier than diversified funds. These are following types of speciality funds:

a) Sector Funds: Equity funds that invest in a particular sector/industry of the market are known as Sector Funds. The exposure of these funds is limited to a particular sector (say Information Technology, Auto, Banking, Pharmaceuticals or Fast Moving Consumer Goods) which is why they are more risky than equity funds that invest in multiple sectors.

b) Foreign Securities Funds: Foreign Securities Equity Funds have the option to invest in one or more foreign companies. Foreign securities funds achieve international diversification and hence they are less risky than sector funds. However, foreign securities funds are exposed to foreign exchange rate risk and country risk.

c) Mid-Cap or Small-Cap Funds: Funds that invest in companies having lower market capitalization than large capitalization companies are called Mid-Cap or Small-Cap Funds. Market capitalization of Mid-Cap companies is less than that of big, blue chip companies (less than Rs. 2500 crores but more than Rs. 500 crores) and Small-Cap companies have market capitalization of less than Rs. 500 crores. Market Capitalization of a company can be calculated by multiplying the market price of the company’s share by the total number of its outstanding shares in the market. The shares of Mid-Cap or Small-Cap Companies are not as liquid as of Large-Cap Companies which gives rise to volatility in share prices of these companies and consequently, investment gets risky.

Diversified Equity Funds – Except for a small portion of investment in liquid money market, diversified equity funds invest mainly in equities without any concentration on a particular sector(s). These funds are well diversified and reduce sector-specific or company-specific risk. However, like all other funds diversified equity funds too are exposed to equity market risk. One prominent type of diversified equity fund in India is Equity Linked Savings Schemes (ELSS). As per the mandate, a minimum of 90% of investments by ELSS should be in equities at all times. ELSS investors are eligible to claim deduction from taxable income (up to Rs 1 lakh) at the time of filing the income tax return. ELSS usually has a lock-in period and in case of any redemption by the investor before the expiry of the lock-in period makes him liable to pay income tax on such income(s) for which he may have received any tax exemption(s) in the past.
Equity Index Funds – Equity Index Funds have the objective to match the performance of a specific stock market index. The portfolio of these funds comprises of the same companies that form the index and is constituted in the same proportion as the index. Equity index funds that follow broad indices (like S&P CNX Nifty, Sensex) are less risky than equity index funds that follow narrow sectoral indices (like BSEBANKEX or CNX Bank Index etc). Narrow indices are less diversified and therefore, are more risky.
Value Funds – Value Funds invest in those companies that have sound fundamentals and whose share prices are currently under-valued. The portfolio of these funds comprises of shares that are trading at a low Price to Earning Ratio (Market Price per Share / Earning per Share) and a low Market to Book Value (Fundamental Value) Ratio. Value Funds may select companies from diversified sectors and are exposed to lower risk level as compared to growth funds or speciality funds. Value stocks are generally from cyclical industries (such as cement, steel, sugar etc.), which make them volatile in the short-term. Therefore, it is advisable to invest in Value funds with a long-term time horizon as risk in the long term, to a large extent, is reduced.
Equity Income and Debt Yield Funds: The objective of Equity Income or Dividend Yield Equity Funds is to generate high recurring income and steady capital appreciation for investors by investing in those companies which issue high dividends (such as Power or Utility companies whose share prices fluctuate comparatively lesser than other companies’ share prices). Equity Income or Dividend Yield Equity Funds are generally exposed to the lowest risk level as compared to other equity funds.

DEBT FUNDS

Funds that invest in medium to long-term debt instruments issued by private companies, banks, financial institutions, governments and other entities belonging to various sectors (like infrastructure companies etc.) are known as Debt / Income Funds. Debt funds are low risk profile funds that seek to generate fixed current income (and not capital appreciation) to investors. In order to ensure regular income to investors, debt (or income) funds distribute large fraction of their surplus to investors. Although debt securities are generally less risky than equities, they are subject to credit risk (risk of default) by the issuer at the time of interest or principal payment. To minimize the risk of default, debt funds usually invest in securities from issuers who are rated by credit rating agencies and are considered to be of “Investment Grade”. Debt funds that target high returns are more risky. Based on different investment objectives, there can be following types of debt funds:

1) Diversified Debt Funds: Debt funds that invest in all securities issued by entities belonging to all sectors of the market are known as diversified debt funds. The best feature of diversified debt funds is that investments are properly diversified into all sectors, which results in risk reduction.

2) High Yield Debt Funds: As we now understand thatrisk of default is present in all debt funds, and therefore, debt funds generally try to minimize the risk of default by investing in securities issued by only those borrowers who are considered to be of “investment grade”. But, High Yield Debt Funds adopt a different strategy and prefer securities issued by those issuers who are considered to be of “below investment grade”. The motive behind adopting this sort of risky strategy is to earn higher interest returns from these issuers. These funds are more volatile and bear higher default risk, although they may earn at times higher returns for investors.

3) Assured Return Funds: Although it is not necessary that a fund will meet its objectives or provide assured returns to investors, but there can be funds that come with a lock-in period and offer assurance of annual returns to investors during the lock-in period. Any shortfall in returns is suffered by the sponsors or the Asset Management Companies (AMCs). These funds are generally debt funds and provide investors with a low-risk investment opportunity. However, the security of investments depends upon the net worth of the guarantor (whose name is specified in advance on the offer document). To safeguard the interests of investors, SEBI permits only those funds to offer assured return schemes whose sponsors have adequate net-worth to guarantee returns in the future. In the past, UTI had offered assured return schemes (i.e. Monthly Income Plans of UTI) that assured specified returns to investors in the future. UTI was not able to fulfill its promises and faced large shortfalls in returns. Eventually, government had to intervene and took over UTI’s payment obligations on itself. Currently, no AMC in India offers assured return schemes to investors, though possible.

4) Fixed Term Plan Series: Fixed Term Plan Series usually are closed-end schemes having short-term maturity period (of less than one year) that offer a series of plans and issue units to investors at regular intervals. Unlike closed-end funds, fixed term plans are not listed on the exchanges. Fixed term plan series usually invest in debt / income schemes and target short-term investors. The objective of fixed term plan schemes is to gratify investors by generating some expected returns in a short period.

ANALYSIS OF DEBT AND EQUITY FUND
Debt Funds

- They must be repaid or refinanced.

- Requires regular interest payments. Company must generate cash flow to pay.

- Collateral assets must usually be available.

- Debt providers are conservative. They cannot share any upside or profits. Therefore, they want to eliminate all possible loss or downside risks.

- Interest payments are tax deductible.

- Debt has little or no impact on control of the company.

Debt allows leverage of company profits.

Equity Funds

- They can usually be kept permanently.

- No payment requirements. May receive dividends, but only out of retained earnings.

- No collateral required.

- Equity providers are aggressive. They can accept downside risks because they fully share the upside as well.

- Dividend payments are not tax deductible.

- Equity requires shared control of the company and may impose restrictions.

Shareholders share the company profits.

Importance of using Debt Funds:

Debt is not an ownership interest in the business. Creditors generally do not have voting power.

- The payment of interest on debt is considered a cost of doing business and is fully tax deductible.

Importance of using EquityFunds:

Unlike obligation of debt, your business will not have any contractual obligation to pay for equity dividend
Equity financing also allows your business to obtain funds without incurring debt, or without having to repay a specific amount of money at a particular time.

Equity financing also allows your business to obtain funds without incurring debt, or without having to repay a specific amount of money at a particular time. Recent deals by equity funds are much larger than in the past. And debt funds are now doing larger “club” deals. Both types of funds have more money under management than ever before. More cash is chasing deals, causing overlap where both types of funds vie over the same company.

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Foreign Solutions to Domestic Problems

People interested in the safety of investing short term cash in certificates of deposit who are unhappy with yields they’ve been receiving may want to consider some other options. The total return on CD’s has been hammered throughout the economic crisis by the compounded effects of the declining U.S. Dollar and the fiscal stimulus packages designed to lower interest rates and create inflation. This has created a net negative return for the people who are most reliant on income generating, principal protected investments.

The fiscal stimulus plans have been designed to keep interest rates low with the intention that low rates will spur economic growth. The hope has been that businesses will take advantage of these low rates by borrowing money and putting it to work increasing their gross revenues and hiring more workers in the process. However, early on in the economic crisis when the Federal Reserve Board began printing money and slashing rates, the money they created was bottlenecked by the banking industry trying to heal their own balance sheets and make up for their own overextension into the sub prime real estate lending market. Thus, much of the initial stimulus never made it to small businesses that might have been willing to borrow early on. The depth and severity of this crisis has since scared off those same businesses as it has dragged on and on with no pickup in consumer demand. Now that the money is finally flowing, businesses have no need to ramp up production.

The official unemployment rate is 3.5% higher now than it was when the economy collapsed in October of 2008. I have a hard time cheering about an unemployment rate just because it’s less than 10%. Perhaps a more telling statistic is that the number of employed people aged 16 and over has declined by 5.8 million people over the last two years. The fiscal stimulus package has not been designed to create employment. The effect is a mild opiate for the masses in the form of increased subsidies and treatment of the economic symptoms like home and auto loans without establishing a rigorous protocol for fixing the economy and weaning the public off of its pain medication.

The haphazard way in which the fiscal stimulus has been doled out has been viewed by the world as U.S. Dollar negative. The U.S. Dollar Index, which is down approximately 14% since the crisis began, only tells part of the story. This index is calculated by the value of our Dollar against a basket of foreign currencies. The Euro Currency, Japanese Yen and the British Pound dominate that currency basket. These three countries, which total more than 80% of the U.S. Dollar Index each have their own economic crises to deal with and are therefore, not reflective of the global value of our currency.

The only real source of global inflation at the moment is in the emerging countries. China is main headline and rightfully so. China holds the key to the next wave of developing middle class. Their growing consumer base will fuel the next round of global economic recovery, along with India, Brazil and numerous smaller Asian economies. These countries are experiencing their very own, “Industrial Revolutions.” Their metamorphosis is happening much faster than the one in our history books and it is their healthy economies that can provide those seeking principal protected earnings some measure of value.

Those of you invested in domestic money markets and CD’s are well aware of the deleterious effects of declining interest rates and a falling Dollar. The compressed yields aren’t enough to offset the waning value of the principal denominated in U.S. Dollars. Fortunately, the global economy brings global alternatives. Our firm trades currency futures. We do not have access to foreign certificates of deposit or, global money market accounts. These ideas are from my personal finance management and are being passed along because they are investments that I’m personally entertaining.

A brief survey of domestic six month CD’s provides us with investment opportunities ranging from a low of 0.05% at Fifth Third Bank to a high of 0.20% at Chase and PNC Bank. Compare those with the following six- month foreign currency deposit rates; South African Rand- 3.68%, Norwegian Krone – 0.6%, Mexican Peso – 2.14% and the Australian Dollar at 3.25%. These investments are not free money and the risks need to be understood. These risks include but are not limited to, the currency exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and the currency you choose to invest in and also include interest rate policy shifts within the individual countries. However, as it becomes clearer and clearer that the United States’ Federal Reserve Board is going to continue to push for lower rates and flood the market with cheap Dollars via their second round of Quantitative Easing, it becomes increasingly important to protect the value of what we have and that means trading shiftless Dollars for global industrial development.

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The Best Car Deals – Low Finance Rates Vs Rebates – Which Should You Choose?

How To Get The Best Car Deals:

Quick tips that will help you at the car dealer:

How to understand Rebates and low financing offers:

Vehicle MSRP: Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price – This price is always negotiable – don’t ever agree to pay MSRP

Exception: Some vehicles that might be “hard to find” or “limited in production” might be sold by the dealers at MSRP or, sometimes higher. This is usually called Market Adjustment.

Manufacturers Rebates: This is your money and has nothing to do with discounts given by the dealership. This money is given to you directly from the factory. Never let the rebate be used as a negotiation tool by the dealer. Any discount or negotiation from the dealer should be separate of any rebates offered.

Low finance rates: 0.00% 1.00% 1.9% etc… These are called Sub-vented rates, they too are offered by the factory and not the dealership. Do not allow a “low” finance rate to be used as part of a negotiation by the dealer. These rates are granted over and above any discounts, rebates, etc.

Exceptions: There are several exceptions to Sub-vented finance rates, but here are two that you really should be aware of:

1. Not all people qualify for these rates. So, if you suspect that you might have some issue that will cause you not to qualify, there is nothing wrong with expressing to the dealer that the low finance rate is something you are interested in, and you would like to apply first, before going through the long, timely steps of deal negotiation. Many dealerships will view this as unusual; however, any “good” dealer will be happy to let you submit an application first if you insist. Why is this important? As we always say, knowledge and preparation are the keys to not overpaying at a dealership. What happens if your entire deal is worked, negotiated and finalized with the dealer? Then you head over to the finance office to finalize the finance terms and payments… You expected to pay 0.00% interest, then at the last second you are told: “Sorry” because you don’t qualify… NOT GOOD THE WHOLE DEAL CHANGES.

2. Rebates and “low” finance rates can not always be combined. Some factories allow it some times, however there is no rule; you must do your homework first. For instance, Chrysler offers manufacturers rebates on most their vehicles, plus they offer low finance rates on most vehicles as well. Though, you the customer must decide which offer you want, you can’t have both. Although, sometimes Chrysler will run special offers that allow you to “combine” both the financing and rebate offers at once. But be careful, dealers won’t always tell you that these offers are available, if you are unaware and you agree to pay higher finance rates, you are stuck.

Commonly Asked Question: Which is the right choice, Rebate or Low Financing?

This is an interesting question asked by many customers, the answer is simple yet many people have no idea.

Remember this rule: You should do what’s best for you, do not ever inquire with a person, dealer, or anyone else that has any other motive than what’s best for you.

What that means is this: When you ask a dealership which makes more sense, the dealer will likely tell you: “Take the rebate – not the low interest rate.”

The reasoning behind this answer is, if you take the rebate you are actually paying “less” for the vehicle than if you elected the low interest rate. So, being that the vehicle price is the most important issue, you should always take the rebate. Is this correct or incorrect?

Rule: Don’t be concerned what the dealer is making or losing, it’s not relevant to what’s best for you.

Does the dealership stand to gain more if you chose the rebate vs. the low finance rate? The answer to that question is yes, the dealership does stand to gain more. They receive a little more in “reserve money” from the lender if you chose conventional finance rates. The fact is however; that this point is completely irrelevant. Who cares what the dealership is making? Why is that important anyway? Is there some rule that says a dealership is not entitled to make profit? The only person who is doing something wrong in this scenario is you. You’re asking the wrong party for information. If the complete and honest answer might cause the dealer to make less, chances are more than likely the answers will be carefully weighed to fall on their side.

Remember: Your concern is getting the best deal for you, don’t waist time caring about what the dealership makes. Prepare yourself by considering all the facts. Do not make the common errors of all the people we constantly heart about who over pay all the time.

Fact: People who think that dealerships are losing money on them are usually the ones who pay the most!

Note: Please understand the purpose of this and every other post we write is NOT to condemn dealerships for making profit. Why should a dealer not be entitled to profit? What right do we have to ask them to lose money? Would you ever go to a restaurant and tell them that you insist they sell you dinner and lose money? It’s a stretch, but equally as ridiculous.

The purpose of this post is to assist fair people in getting the best deal for themselves. Protecting people from being “ripped off” by a deceptive dealership is our motivation. We don’t claim that all dealers are unfair or “rip off artists”, in fact we are aware that most dealers are honest and forthcoming. Although, everyone is in business to make a profit and the topics written about within these posts are for the purpose of assisting “fair” consumers achieve “fair” and honest deals. Why do we keep mentioning “fair”. Because equal to us having no concern about a cheating dealership, we also have no concern about the “unfair” consumers who want the good dealers to close down their business and lose money.

“A GOOD DEAL IS WHEN BOTH PARTIES ARE SATISFIED”

As we have mentioned so many times; price is not always the most important issue.

The following is the one and only correct answer to the Rebate vs. low rate debate:

With any issue that causes you to make a decision there are always certain facts in place, those facts make up the “pros and cons”. With any decision we make, we weight the pros and cons and ultimately are lead to a decision. Then of course, we hope that decision was the right one.

Remember this rule: There is always a point where the two lines will cross, that point is where you will find the correct answer.

This means; there are variables that create change in every deal. For example: It may be a better deal for me to take the rebate, while it is a better deal for you to take the low financing rates. Let’s explain:

You might be financing $30,000 and your finance term is 60 months. The Factory is offering a $3000 manufacturers rebate or 0.00% for the 60 month finance term. Which do you choose?

I might be financing $12,000 – The factory is offering a $3000 rebate or 0.00% for the finance term. Which one do I choose?

Obviously the answers vary; your lines of “break even” will obviously cross way sooner than my lines. The reason: different factors in the two deals will yield different answers.

Here’s how you figure out the correct answer based on your factors:

For this example we’ll assume that you are considering a $30,000 car with $3,000 rebate or a 0% interest rate, and for the sake of finding an answer, we’ll assume that you’re putting $3,000 a down payment and you qualify for all offers.

First: Draw a line down the middle of a piece of paper; on one side write Rebate on the other side write 0%

Second: on the 0% side write in the sale price of $30,000 – and on the left side (rebate) write in the sale price of $30,000 as well.

Third: On both sides add in your local tax rate. For instance: if you live in Queens NY add 8.25% as sales tax.

Fourth: on both sides add $300 – this should cover DMV – Inspection and dealer Doc Fees.

Fifth: On both sides – subtract $3,000 for you down payment

Sixth: On the rebate side subtract $3,000 for the rebate

If you did this right, so far you should have the following results:

Both sides: should show Sale Price $30,000 Tax $2,475. DMV $300. Sub Total: $32,775

Rebate Side Should show $6,000.00 Total down payment and an “unpaid balance” of $26,775.00

The 0% side should show $3,000 Total Down Payment and an “unpaid balance of $29,775.00

Assumption: If you chose not to take the 0% – the dealer offered you a 5.5% interest rate.

Compare to see where the lines cross:

Next step – find an auto loan calculator – you can go on any search engine type in “free auto loan calculator”

I am not able to attach a link to this area of the post so I will simply suggest a very user friendly, free calculator (which we have no affiliation) is chase.com just search:

“Free chase auto loan calculator”

Calculate:

REBATE SIDE

$26,775 Amount Financed

5.5% APR

60 Month Term

Answer: Payment $511.43

Total Interest: $3,910.80

Total of Payments $30,685.00

0% SIDE

$29,775.00 Amount Financed

0% APR

Answer: Payment $496.25

Total of Payments $29,775.00

Summery: On your deal, 0% came out to be $910.80 less than the REBATE, so obviously the better deal for you is 0%.

On my worksheet, using the same method, it turned out that the rebate was quite a bit more of savings, (only because I was financing much less) if I chose to finance more money perhaps the lines would cross sooner.

Final notes to remember:

1) If you choose to lower or raise you down payment and lower and raise your amount financed, the out come of “which one” is a better deal will vary. So, keep testing the different scenarios using the method provided above and you will find the best deal for you. Every time!

2) Be careful – No rebate is final, while low financing isn’t: Keep in mind this very important consideration: If you choose low financing over the rebate – essentially you just paid more for the vehicle and you can’t get that money back. However, you chose to do so in return for free financing terms. (Very smart) You did your homework, you made your decision based on solid factors and you made the overall least expensive decision. EXCELLENT WORK! Though, you must remember you made this comparison based on a 5 year repayment term. If you keep the vehicle for 5 years, and pay as expected you win, your calculations were perfect and you achieved the best deal for you. On the other hand, if something changes and for any reason you decide that you are not going to keep this vehicle beyond the second or third year… Then, you just gave back the benefit of the low financing. The variables have changed once again and the better deal swings back to the rebate. So remember, in the privacy non pressured environment of your own home; carefully consider all your options and likelihoods. For instance, if you know you don’t keep a vehicle beyond a couple of years, this must be included as a decision factors.

Long story short: Always compile all the facts first, limit the variables that can change the deal and negotiate with confidence.

The author of this article is an auto industry professional for the past 18 years. Robert has extensive knowledge in automotive finance and specialty automotive finance (bad credit). Having worked as a finance and special finance manger for dealerships in the New York metropolitan area since the early 90′s Robert has assisted thousands of clients in achieving auto mobile loans with “less than perfect” credit.

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The Benefits Of Getting A Personal Loan

A personal loan is usually not secured. It means collateral does not need to be provided by you when you borrow. The loan is offered to you by the lender on the basis of your credit and qualifiers. You can easily get the approval of loan, if you have a good credit. A lower interest rate can also be offered to you. Visit a financial institution or search online to get a personal loan.

Here is a list of some of the benefits of such a loan.

Lower interest rate – If you have good credit, then personal loans with lower interest rates can be availed by you. Around 15% APR on a credit card balance is paid by the people with lower credit card balance. But if you have good credit, you have to pay only 6% APR. While making a big purchase, it is considered as a big difference.
Use for many purchases – Your cash can be used by you for making any purchase. A loan of this type can be used even for purchasing a vehicle, starting a business or renovating your house. Restrictions may be placed by other types of loans on the usage of fund. But the conditions of using a personal loan are flexible and can be used for any purchase.
Consolidate debt – High interest debt can be consolidated by using a personal loan. Several smaller debts with high interest such as credit cards and student loans can be paid off by using a larger loan. Money on interest can be saved if you consolidate your debt by using this loan. Your debt repayment plan can be managed in a better way by combing several loans in one place.
Smooth your cash flow – Your cash flow can be smoothened by using a personal loan. A personal line of credit can be got by you, by using your personal loans. You have to pay a low interest rate in this alternate way of use. An emergency fund doesn’t need to be raised for future. The borrowed amount can be repaid by accessing your line of credit.
Boost your credit score – Your credit score is counted depending on your different types of accounts. One type of credit is represented by credit cards. In this case, you can use your credit score to handle your loans. Your score can be boosted slightly by adding instalment loans in your credit report.
Thus, save a huge amount on all your purchases by using a personal loan. Always remember to compare different loans before borrowing any sum.

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Five Reasons for Refusal of a Personal Loan

Don’t you wish personal finance were a mandatory course in college? Unfortunately, too many of us learn by mistake. When you need a personal loan and are rejected, you might be baffled as to what went wrong- and how to fix it. Here are some clues.

NO CREDIT

No credit is a situation where you have never used credit and therefore have no credit history for the bank to review. They have no way of making an educated decision on whether or not you will pay back a personal loan based on your credit history. No credit is worse than bad credit. Qualifying for and making regular payments on these types of introductory forms of credit can overcome a “no credit” score:

· Student Loans

· Secured credit card (includes a down payment amount)

· Being added to a parent’s or spouses good credit: card, car loan, etc.

LOW CREDIT

Low credit takes on several forms. If you’re using more than 30% of your allowable debt, it can negatively impact your score. Too many inquiries from shopping around for loans will also hit you hard. Lapses in payment, defaults, or bankruptcies are giant red flags and can take a long time to rebuild from.

Other things that lenders may look at are whether or not you have sizeable assets should you default on the loan. They also check to see if your debts are diversified or if you are only carrying one type of debt.

INCOME

Proof of income is generally required when applying for a personal loan. If you are unemployed or underemployed, it can work against you in the loan approval process. Lenders may also require a work history to see how long you have been with your current employer, and to determine if you typically have job stability. Frequent job loss or change will tell a creditor that your payments may not be reliable.

PURPOSE OF THE LOAN

Believe it or not, your application can be rejected due to your proposed purpose for the loan. Financial institutions have the right to set up the parameters surrounding their disbursements and can accept or reject your application based on what you want to use the money for.

BLACKLISTING

If you’ve defaulted on debt before, your name may be put on a list of whom not to loan to,’ also known as a “Blacklist.” This will follow you around for a long time and is difficult to erase. If you do resolve the debt issues, get documents to prove the resolution.

NO CREDIT CHECK LOAN

If you need a loan now, but are concerned that you might not qualify for a personal line of credit, you can qualify for a No Credit Check Loan. You could be on your way to a better financial future in no time!

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A Latin Impact on the Finance Industry

Financial Institutions are a fantastic business model to learn from when considering ever changing market conditions. Their traditional target markets are stable, but, the needs of an emerging market, the Latino market is extremely underserved. It is certainly not for lack of money. Many Latinos have zero debt and healthy saving habits. The question arises, are financial institutions doing enough to serve this population? Are they adapting to the Latino needs? The answer is complicated.

There are two types of Latinos in the USA. One is the immigrant seeking a better life and wanting the American dream, whether they came through the proper channels or not it is irrelevant. The second, are the Latinos that are born here. These are two very different groups of people with different needs and goals. Most immigrants bring their culture, traditions, and customs with them to the US. Those born here develop a blended culture that is both Latino and American.

Financial Institutions are taking notice and making strides to accommodate this very economically influential population. The main reason is that there is a lot of investment in education and developing trust. An untold detail is that in Latino countries, people do not trust banks and financial institution because of corruption. Everything is paid in cash and there are no debt or traditional credit scores. This means that the Latino community have cash, probably stored under their mattress or in a shoe box. This is very dangerous considering that a house fire could burn an entire life savings. Another scenario is they could become a target for robbery. This is a foreign concept for Americans. What is happening is a huge learning curve, educating them on the process of building credit, saving their money in a financial institution, getting loans (mortgage, car, etc.), and most important having trust in the financial institutions.

The younger generations that are born here learn from their parents and surroundings. There is still a disconnect from the importance of financial products, building credit, and how that process works. Many of these young people are just translating for their parents, explaining financial products, and become an intermediary for conducting business. You will notice an increase in bilingual support at many financial institutions for this reason. There is still a lot of work to do in this regard, and this process will take time.

However, more and more financial institutions are offering products specific to Latinos. Information is becoming available in Spanish and more financial institutions are hiring bilingual and multi-lingual speakers. It will be interesting to see how we as a country adapt to this important demographic. It is truly an untapped market that has an important function in our economy for growth and stability.

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6 Home Loans Tips Before Applying

Applying for home loans could be dreadful, particularly on the off chance that you are a first-time home purchaser. There’s a considerable measure of printed material and indulgent preparing included. Yet at the same time, it is justified regardless of your exertion. This far reaching contract aide will walk you through the way toward securing financing for your home and make you feel that applying for a home loan is not that horrible all things considered.

1. Know about them Lender or Broker?

There are two approaches to apply for a home loan. To start with, you can manage a loan specialist or home loan organization straightforwardly. Second, you can procure a home loan representative who will help you look over an assortment of moneylenders. Most homebuyers think that its less demanding and less expensive to choose a loan specialist, without assistance from the outsider. In addition, with a specific end goal to locate an equipped and solid agent, you should do a really decent research and get references. That is the reason a great many people like to keep it straightforward and manage a bank themself. In a few circumstances, be that as it may, merchants can really work to support you. For instance, if your record of loan repayment is not all that good, an accomplished dealer might be exceptionally useful in shopping and arranging for the most ideal arrangement.

2. Know the True Rates

The publicized rate frequently snatches borrowers’ consideration yet it is really not the one that borrowers ought to depend on. The AAPR or “the genuine rate” is a much better guide, as it checks every one of the expenses and charges that will happen over the term of your loan. In spite of the fact that the AAPR is a stage up from the publicized rate, it is still only a quantitative device. Once you’ve chosen a couple loans in view of their AAPRs, you will at present need to investigate their different elements. Some worldwide think-tanks, for example, CANNEX and AIMS Home Loans can outfit you with some canny data about mortage loans and help you limit down your choices quicker.

3. Know about loans details & terms

When you search for a home loan and read through various home loan terms and conditions, you will go over money related wording that you most likely won’t discover somewhere else. It is critical for you to comprehend those home loan terms with the goal that you can secure the most ideal arrangement. Truth be told, numerous money related foundations and land firms offer free homebuying workshops, which can help you comprehend what individuals are discussing in land business. Here are some fundamental home loan terms that you ought to know:

APR – Yearly rate, expected to mirror the yearly cost of acquiring. It is otherwise called the “promoted rate” or “feature rate”, that ought to make it less demanding for borrowers to think about moneylenders and loan alternatives.

Closing Costs – Shutting costs incorporate “non-repeating shutting costs” and “prepaid things.” Non-repeating shutting expenses are any things to be paid only once as a consequence of purchasing the property or acquiring a loan. Prepaid things are things which repeat after some time, for example, property charges and mortgage holders protection. Normally a moneylender should gauge both the measure of non-repeating shutting costs and prepaid things, then issue them to the borrower inside three days of accepting a home loan application.

Collateral – An insurance is the thing that you use to secure a loan or ensure reimbursement of a loan. In a home loan, the property is the security. The borrower will lose their property if the loan is not reimbursed by assentions of the home loan.

4. Check Your Credit

When you apply for a home loan, your whole record as a consumer will be investigated by your forthcoming moneylender. FICO ratings more than 620 have a decent risk of getting affirmed for a home loan with a decent financing cost. On the off chance that your score is beneath 600, in any case, your application might be denied or you may get affirmed at a much higher loan fee. Whether you have a decent or terrible financial assessment, what you ought to do is check your credit report before your bank does. You can get your credit report from Equifax, Experian and Trans Union. In the event that there are any mistakes, attempt to contact these three organizations and clear them up. This procedure can take a great deal of time, so it is something you ought to do a while before apply for a home loan. Paying down your budgetary commitments, for example, Visa obligation and auto loans, before applying for a home loan is additionally an extraordinary thought.

5. Don’t afraid from your bad credit score

Regardless of the possibility that you have an awful financial record, you ought to in any case glance around for the best arrangement. Don’t simply expect your lone choice is a high-taken a toll loan. On the off chance that your credit issues were created by unavoidable circumstances, for example, ailment or a brief loss of pay, disclose your circumstance to the loan specialist or intermediary. Ask a few banks what you need to do keeping in mind the end goal to get the least conceivable cost.

6. Verify and clarify all the things

A pre-endorsement letter is extremely useful, yet not as awaiting as you may think. When you locate a home you’d like to purchase, and your offer has been endorsed, you will need to do a reversal to the moneylender and submit archives that confirm your monetary data to get a loan. Your benefits will be assessed. The loan specialist will investigate your work history. You ought to have no less than two years of business history in the same profession. On the off chance that you are new to the work power, advanced education may help you get endorsed. In the event that you don’t have a sufficient record as a consumer, you may utilize normal regularly scheduled installments, for example, lease, telephone, or satellite TV to demonstrate the loan specialist that you are a reliable shopper.

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The Role of Islamic Finance in Economic Stability and Social Justice

One of the most distinguishing times for the U.S. Islamic home financing industry began in February 2007. The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) sent out a press release announcing that it would no longer buy the most risky subprime mortgages and mortgage backed securities. Two months after the announcement, a leading subprime mortgage lender filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Three months after that bankruptcy filing, nationwide financing entities warned of “difficult conditions” ahead. Manifestations of such difficult conditions appeared on the horizon of the financial market when once well-established mortgage companies suddenly began to file for Chapter 11. Similar circumstances reached the U.K. as the Bank of England cleared an authorization to provide liquidity support to Northern Rock, the country’s fifth largest mortgage lender. Five months later, Treasury of the United Kingdom became the owner of Northern Rock.

Up until that point, the gravity of these “difficult conditions” was not fully understood by most of the populace. Late in 2008, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was authorized to lend $85 billion to the AIG. This was the beginning of the most serious recession in the United States since the Great Depression. What followed was a chain reaction that led to an unprecedented global financial crisis, as the world suffered from rising unemployment, rampant foreclosures, and severe skepticism of financial instruments.

This led to a renewed spotlight on an unfamiliar market segment that appeared comparatively more stable and, more importantly, far more ethical: the Islamic financing sector. From the financial centers in Malaysia to the Middle East, spanning across over seventy countries, Islamic finance in the U.S. increased from $5 billion in the 1980s to $1 trillion in 2010. This phenomenal growth caught the attention of global investors who were seeking to safeguard their investments through more ethical and reliable financial instruments. When financial sector workers realized that these Shariah-compliant instruments avoided many of the worst effects of the global financial crisis, it became an attractive investment vehicle to support a more diverse portfolio. The Shariah-compliant financial sector has avoided investment in predatory lending businesses and overly leveraged financial instruments due to the strict ethical nature of the Shariah governance system. News and media outlets started to cover this ancient yet unfamiliar industry in hopes of learning from the mistakes of the conventional banking sector.

The concept of the modern Islamic financial services industry is rooted in the principles of Islamic legal jurisprudence that deals with financial transactions, a branch of Islamic jurisprudence called Fiqh Al Muamalat. Fiqh Al Muamalat is a framework under Islamic Law that charts the conduct of Muslims in commercial or economic endeavors. Islamic finance products and rulings are based on specific injunctions from the Quran that prohibit certain features of financial transaction models and related economic activities.

The Quran forbids interest, also called usury or riba. The underlying reasoning is that Islam considers lending to be a charitable act to help another member of the society in his/her time of need – therefore, profiting from someone’s hardship is strictly forbidden. In the conventional banking system, when interest is charged on a loan, the risk of that transaction is transferred to the borrower while the lender gains profit from the interest-based transaction. There is no consideration for the hardships endured by the borrower in the event they undergo any loss from the transaction.

By its nature, Shariah law prohibits unethical financial practices. It also promotes wealth distribution among all people to reduce poverty and inequity. This is manifested in the prohibitions of activities such as excessive speculation, gambling, and investing in products that are harmful for society as deemed by Islamic law (alcohol, pornography, etc). The structure of Islamic financial products and services, especially its prohibition in speculative transactions, has helped the industry escape most of the adverse effects of the global financial crisis. The governance model of Islamic financial institutions has been praised as an ethical alternative by institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Economic experts have suggested that Islamic financial principles can be leveraged to promote financial inclusion that uplift the quality of life in developing nations. Islamic financial principles can also contribute to financial stability and economic development around the world.

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Take Control of Your Finances and Get Out of Debt

Debt: The one thing that we all dread. All people desire financial freedom, but very few people achieve their goal. Poor money management is the greatest problem especially when it comes to debt- bad debt. To most people debt is a way of life. The basic definition of debt is money borrowed by one person from another. Under this definition, debt is never bad or good. But, there are two types of debts bad and good. Bad debt is money that can’t be recovered. Good debt helps you to make money.

You can’t live without good debt as that is how you will get ahead. For you to become financially free, you have to learn how to pay off your bad debts stay free of them. Bad debt is money that you borrow and buy luxuries like clothes, cars, go for vacations, jewellery, etc.

To eliminate bad debt, there are two things that you need to do; limit your expenses and have a formula for debt repayment. Everyone has a formula for paying off the debt. Below are six steps that you can use.

Take note; this may not apply to everyone. This is just the formula I used to pay off my bad debts.

STEP ONE

Stop accumulating debt:

The first step for is to stop accumulating debt. When you notice that you have dug yourself in a hole, you STOP digging.

You need to limit your expense. This means being frugal. Most people think that frugality is a bad thing. But, if you are to succeed in getting out of debt, you need to be economical. Take an inventory of your expenses and then try to eliminate the expenses that you can leave without. Write down belt-tightening measures that are going to save you money each month. Commit to this process as your life depends on it.
Never shop on impulse. Shopping on impulse is what makes people get into debt. You need to control your desires.
Delayed gratification. If you seek short-term gratification, you will pay for it in the long-term. Never purchase the luxuries with a credit you will only be digging yourself deeper into debt.
STEP TWO
Take account of your debts

You cannot work on something you do not know. So, you need to take account of your debts. This is the toughest part because you will have to be true to yourself. You also need to indicate the amount of money that you owe. Make sure that you also write down how long it will take.

For example:

Credit card debt amounting to $2,000 with a minimum payment of $200. That means it will take you eight months to completely pay off the debt.
Your school loan amounting to $3,000 with a minimum payment of $300. It will take you ten months to complete the payment
You need to list all the debt including the ones you owe to your friends and family. They may not require the money back, but, by paying off your friends will help you develop self-discipline.
STEP THREE

Start paying off your debt

Once you have made your list, you need to start paying off the debt with the least number of months. If you pay off the debt, it will motivate you.

STEP FOUR

Move on to the next debt

Take the next debt with the least number of months and pay it off. Here is the tricky part; take the money from the first debt and add to this new debt. For example, take the first $200 you were paying and add $300. In total, you will be paying $500. This means that instead of taking ten months, your second loan will take you six months instead of ten months.

STEP FIVE

Find an alternative income generating channel

It is important for you to find an alternative source of income. It doesn’t have to be something time-consuming. A part-time side gig is perfect for you. The idea is to raise an extra amount of money, $50 to $100. The extra cash is to be used for your debt repayment. It will help you to pay the debt faster than you anticipated.

STEP SIX

Pay yourself

Most people don’t pay themselves, but by not doing so you will not be motivated. It makes sense to pay your debts first. However, if you don’t develop the discipline of paying yourself first, you will not be motivated to pay off your debts. Motivated you ask? Yes. When you pay yourself first, the pressure to pay off your creditors will make you come up with different solutions for paying them off.

To pay off yourself, you need to start small. Take three piggy banks; one for saving, investing and tithing then take 30% or the amount you are comfortable with from your income and put into the piggy banks i.e., 10 % in the three banks. After every month, deposit the money into your savings account and investment account. The tithing money, give it away to your favourite charity or church.

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The Process of Car Repossession – Understand It So It Doesn’t Happen to You

In a perfect world, things would always go as they should.

Sometimes that’s just not the case.

If you’ve found yourself in a bind or on the verge of falling behind on your payments. The best thing to do is contact your credit card, mortgage or auto loan companies and explain your situation.

Take action

If you have a car loan, you understand the importance of paying your loan on time. If you cannot make your payments on the exact due date.

You are granted a 30-day grace period to make a payment without having this late reported to the credit bureaus.

If you don’t think you’ll be able to make a payment before the 30-day grace period ends or foresee yourself being in a bind that will last longer than 30 days, there is something you should know.

Ignoring calls from your creditor is the wrong route to go.

*While you may feel embarrassed or reluctant to contact your creditor, you are not alone. Thousands of people fall behind on their payments due to financial hardships. The person on the other end of the phone is trained to handle these types of calls and will be more than willing to help you the best way they can.

What should you do?

Most car loans have a stipulation that allows you to defer your payments for a short amount of time while you get your finances situated. Other options besides deferment might be offered such as lower payments until you can make the full payment.

Your options will depend on your specific car loan and terms agreed upon at the time of sale.

If you are currently in good standing:

Call your creditor and explain that you’ve had some setbacks and ask about your options to defer your loan payment until you can make payments. This will usually give you about 2 months to catch up.

If you are currently not in good standing(late beyond 30 days):

Call your creditor back and explain that you’ve had some setbacks and would like to make a plan to catch up on your payments or defer a future payment. Ask about your options to defer your loan payment until you can make a payment. You will usually be asked to make your account at least current up to 30 days before a deferral can be granted.

How will this help you?

Car repossession doesn’t end well for anyone. Not you and certainly not your creditor. Once a car is repossessed, it is usually sold at an auction for a fraction of the cost. This is a lose-lose situation for everyone.

While your loan is in deferment you will not be reported late to the credit bureau as you have made an agreement with the company to pay at a later date.

The downside to this, of course, is that your loan agreement will be extended and you will end up paying more interest in the long run. This is, however, a better alternative to having your vehicle taken.

When can your car be repossessed?

It all depends on the specific car loan you have in place. You are usually considered in default of your loan agreement as soon as you miss a payment.

With that being said, you are granted a 30-day grace period. Some states allow cars to be repossessed after one missed payment. The longer you take to make your payment is one step closer to having your car taken and a serious ding on your credit report.

A repossession will remain on your credit for up to 7 years and hurt your chances of obtaining other car loans in the near future. Even after a repossession, you may still owe the difference between what you owed your lender and what your car was sold for. This is called a deficiency balance. A deficiency balance is usually the norm especially if you purchased a newer vehicle.

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